Two fungal species associated with canker disease of Jujube tree in China

Meng Pan, Chengming Tian and Xinlei Fan*

The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, P. R. China, *Correspondence author, email: [email protected]

Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) is a common fruit tree used in landscaping, medicine and timber. However, Jujube trees are threatened by various pathogens in the process of planting and cultivation. In this study, destructive canker diseases of Z. jujuba were investigated in Beijing, China. Based on morphological comparison and DNA sequence analysis, the causal organisms of these diseases were identified as Dothiorella acericola and Nothophoma spiraeae. This is the first report of D. acericola and  N. spiraeae on Z. jujuba. This study improves our understanding of fungal species causing canker or dieback disease on this economically important tree and provides insights on selecting the effective disease management strategies for Z. jujuba in China.

Pan M, Tian C, Fan XL (2021) Two fungal species associated with canker disease of Jujube tree in China. MycoAsia 2021/03. 

Received: 28.01.2021 | Accepted: 09.10.2021 | Published: 09.10.2021 | Handling Editor: Dr. Ajay Kumar Gautam | Reviewers: Dr. Rashmi Dubey, Dr. R. K. Verma, Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy

Download Article (PDF)

Didymocrea leucaenae: A new record to Indian mycoflora

Rashmi Dubey

Botanical Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India, Email: [email protected]

During a field survey of Sindhudurg district (Maharashtra, India), undertaken as a part of studying diversity of litter fungi of Northern Western Ghats of India, a species of Didymocrea was collected. Based on morphological and molecular data, the species was identified as D. leucaenae. From consultation of pertinent literature, it is found to be a new record to Indian mycoflora.

Dubey R (2021) Didymocrea leucaenae: A new record to Indian mycoflora. MycoAsia 2021/02. 

Received: 02.03.2021 | Accepted: 02.07.2021 | Published: 02.07.2021 | Handling Editor: Dr. Ajay Kumar Gautam | Reviewers: Dr. Prem Lal Kashyap, Dr. Rajnish Kumar Verma

Download Article (PDF)

Smut fungi: a compendium of their diversity and distribution in India

Ajay Kumar Gautam1, Rajnish Kumar Verma2, Shubhi Avasthi3, Sushma4, Bandarupalli Devadatha5, Shivani Thakur4 Prem Lal Kashyap6, Indu Bhushan Prasher7, Rekha Bhadauria3, Mekala Niranjan8 and Kiran Ramchandra Ranadive9

1School of Agriculture, Abhilashi University, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, 175028, India; 2Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, 141004, India; 3School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, 474011, India; 4Department of Biosciences, Chandigarh University Gharuan, Punjab, India; 5Fungal Biotechnology Lab, Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, Pondicherry, 605014, India; 6ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research (IIWBR), Karnal, Haryana, India; 7Department of Botany, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014, India; 8Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh-791112, India; 9Department of Botany, P.D.E.A.’s Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya, Mahadevnagar, Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra, India

A compendium of Indian smut fungi with respect to their diversity and distribution is provided in this paper. After compiling all the information available in online and offline resources, it was revealed that Indian smut fungi comprise 18 genera and 159 species belonging to five families. About 189 host plant species belonging to eight families are reportedly infected by smut fungi, Poaceae being the most infected. Similarly, Ustilago was reported with highest number of species (48) from India that accounts for 30.38 % of total number of species. Ustilago was followed by Sporisorium and Anthracocystis. Other genera recorded from India are Ahmadiago, Bambusiomyces, Cintractia, Clinoconidium, Eriocaulago, Farysia, Franzpetrakia, Macalpinomyces, Melanopsichium, Melanotaenium, Moesziomyces, Pericladium, Stollia, Tolyposporium and Tranzscheliella. Inaccessibility of literature on online platforms and ceased publications of many journals are the reasons for the dispersed literature of Indian smut fungi. This causes difficulties to researchers, especially young and emerging mycologists working on, or starting taxonomic work on smut fungi. The present paper provides a complete account of diversity and distribution of Indian smut fungi in a single-source document, for the benefit of national and international students and plant pathologists working on smut fungi.

Gautam AK, Verma RK, Avasthi S, Sushma, Devadatha B, Thakur S, Kashyap PL, Prasher IB, Bhadauria R, Niranjan M, Ranadive KR (2021) Smut fungi: a compendium of their diversity and distribution in India. MycoAsia 2021/01. 

Received: 01.11.2020 | Accepted: 14.03.2021 | Published: 14.03.2021 | Handling Editor: Dr. Samantha C. Karunarathna | Reviewers: Dr. Biao Xu, Dr. Gunjan Sharma, Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy

Download Article (PDF)

 

Ingoldian fungi in terrestrial damp woody litter of five tree species

Kodandoor Sharathchandra1 and Kandikere Ramaiah Sridhar1, 2, *

1Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore, Karnataka, India; 2Centre for Environmental Studies, Yenepoya (deemed to be) University, Mangalore, India; *Corresponding author, email: [email protected]

Ingoldian fungi are known to occur beyond their preferred lotic habitats. There are many reports on their occurrence in tree canopies (stemflow, through fall and tree holes) and terrestrial leaf litter. This study aimed to assess the assemblage and diversity of Ingoldian fungi in terrestrial damp woody litter of five tree species grown in scrub jungles of the southwest India, following bubble (2 days) and damp chamber (14 days) incubations of segments of bark and cambium samples. Conidia released into water were trapped using Millipore filters, stained and assessed. Total 30 fungal species were recorded, with a higher species richness in bubble chamber as compared to damp chamber incubation method (25 spp. vs. 18 spp.). The bark samples in bubble chamber incubation method yielded more species than cambium samples (19 spp. vs. 16 spp.). The bark samples in bubble chamber incubation also showed the highest number of exclusive species as compared to cambium samples (8 spp. vs. 6 spp.). Simpson and Shannon diversities were higher in bark samples than cambium samples in bubble chamber incubation with low Pielou’s equitability. The frequency of occurrence of the top three species (Anguillospora longissima, Flagellospora curvula and Triscelophorus acuminatus) and top two species (A. longissima and F. curvula) were same in both samples in bubble and damp chamber incubations, respectively. The bark samples of Terminalia paniculata and cambium samples of Ficus benghalensis showed the highest number of average species in bubble chamber incubation. The bark samples of Acacia auriculiformis as well as F. benghalensis possess the highest number of average species in damp chamber incubation, while the cambium samples of Artocarpus heterophyllus showed the highest number of average species. All tree species showed the higher number of average conidia in bark samples as compared to cambium samples in bubble chamber incubation, with a highest frequency in Anacardium occidentale. The bark of Acacia auriculiformis and cambium of F. benghalensis showed the highest average conidia in damp chamber incubation. Bubble chamber incubation served as a rapid and efficient method of assessment of Ingoldian fungi in damp woody litter.

Sharathchandra K, Sridhar KR (2020) Ingoldian fungi in terrestrial damp woody litter of five tree species. MycoAsia 2020/07. 

Received: 17.11.2020 | Accepted: 19.12.2020 | Published: 19.12.2020 | Handling Editor: Dr. B. Devadatha | Reviewers: Dr. V. Venkateswara Sarma, Dr. Sudeep D. Ghate

Download Article (PDF)

 

Antagonistic activities of needle-leaf fungal endophytes against Fusarium spp.

Ronel Brandon C. De Mesa1, Isabel Rafaela Espinosa1, Ma. Carmella Romana R. Agcaoili1, Marie Antonette T. Calderon1, Ma. Victoria B. Pangilinan1, Jewel C. De Padua2, and Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz1, 2, *

1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, España Blvd. 1008 Manila, Philippines; 2Fungal Biodiversity, Ecogenomics and Systematics (FBeS) Group, Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, España Blvd. 1008 Manila, Philippines; *Corresponding author, email: [email protected]

The use of living beneficial microbes and/ or their products to control plant pathogens can offer a safer alternative to chemical treatments. In this study, needle-leaf fungal endophytes (NLE) were isolated from symptoms-free needle-leaves of two host plants collected in Cavite and Batangas, Philippines. A total of 73 NLEs were observed from three tree samples for each of the angiosperm Casuarina equisetifolia Engl. and the gymnosperm Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon. These were identified as belonging to 17 morphospecies. Of these, seven NLEs, mainly isolated from C. equisetifolia, were tested for their antagonistic activities against three potential plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum s.l. Smith & Swingle, F. solani s.l. (Mart.) Sacc., and F. moniliforme s.l. J. Sheld. using the dual-culture method at three strategies. Our results showed NLEs inhibited F. oxysporum on contact via the preventive, eradicative, and simultaneous approaches indicating that fungal endophytes may be used as potential biocontrol agents against F. oxysporum s.l..

De Mesa RBC, Espinosa IR, Agcaoili MCRR, Calderon MAT, Pangilinan MVB, De Padua JC, dela Cruz TEE (2020) Antagonistic activities of needle-leaf fungal endophytes against Fusarium spp. MycoAsia 2020/06. 

Received: 11.09.2020 | Accepted: 05.10.2020 | Published 05.10.2020 | Handling Editor: Dr. Mahadeva Kumar

Download Article (PDF)

 

Species listing and diversity of myxomycetes from Mt. Makulot and Napayong Island in Taal Lake, Batangas, Philippines

Margareth Del E Isagan1, Mariah Kristianne C Carbonell1, Yonnalyn A Dalangin1, Ana Joramae L Lapira1,Melissa H Pecundo2, Thomas Edison E dela Cruz1, 2, *

1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, España Blvd. 1008 Manila, Philippines; 2Fungal Biodiversity, Ecogenomics and Systematics (FBeS) Group, Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, España Blvd. 1008 Manila, Philippines; *Corresponding author, email: [email protected]

The rich vegetation of volcanic forest offers a unique habitat to explore myxomycetes (slime molds). In this study, the occurrence and diversity of myxomycetes in forest areas of Taal Volcano Crater Rim (Mt. Makulot) and Napayong Island in Taal Lake are reported. Decayed aerial and ground leaf litter, twigs, and woody vines collected from the study areas were used to prepare 1,110 moist-chamber cultures. A total of 35 species belonging to 14 genera were collected. These slime molds were identified as species of Arcyria, Ceratiomyxa, Clastoderma, Collaria, Comatricha, Cribraria, Diachea, Diderma, Didymium, Hemitrichia, Lamproderma, Perichaena, Physarum and Stemonitis. Five species were unique to Mt. Makulot while seven species were exclusively recorded in Napayong Island. Napayong Island also had a higher species diversity as compared to Mt. Makulot. In terms of substrate types, highest species diversity was recorded in ground litter collected in Napayong Island. This study is the first listing of species of myxomycetes in Napayong Island, a small island within a lake within an island.  

Isagan MDE, Carbonell MKC, Dalangin YA, Lapira AJL, Pecundo MH, dela Cruz TEE (2020) Species listing and diversity of myxomycetes from Mt. Makulot and Napayong Island in Taal Lake, Batangas, Philippines. MycoAsia 2020/05. 

Received: 28.06.2020 | Accepted: 08.09.2020 | Published: 08.09.2020 | Handling Editor: Dr. Hanh Tran

Download Article (PDF)

 

A preliminary study on L-asparaginase from mangrove detritus-derived fungi and its application in plant growth promotion

Varada S. Damare*, Kiran G. Kajawadekar

Department of Microbiology, Goa University. Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206, India; *Corresponding author, email: [email protected]

L-asparaginase enzyme has wide applications in medicine, food industry and developing biosensors. The present study was carried out to investigate the plant growth-promoting characteristics of L-asparaginase, an aspect that is poorly studied. Two filamentous fungi, Peroneutypa sp. GU-S and Lecanicillium sp. GU-G, derived from mangrove detritus in Goa, India, produced L-asparaginase enzyme in laboratory conditions which was active at room temperature, and 37 °C. A higher amount of enzyme was produced under aeration than without aeration. The optimum pH for asparaginase activity was 8. The enzyme isolated from Peroneutypa sp. GU-S  was more stable at lower pH 4, and thus further processed. The enzyme was produced using economical sources, i.e., powdered soya and grass by solid-state fermentation. Germinating seeds of pea, Pisum sativum inoculated with crude enzyme extract produced a better quality of seedlings than the seedlings from un-inoculated seeds. The shoot and the root length were 1.2 and 2.2 times greater in the test than in control plants, within twenty days of incubation. This study demonstrates plant growth-promoting ability of the L-asparaginase, which can be further studied on other plants.

Damare VS, Kajawadekar KG (2020) A preliminary study on L-asparaginase from mangrove detritus-derived fungi and its application in plant growth promotion. MycoAsia 2020/04. 

Received: 04.10.2019 | Accepted: 22.06.2020 | Published: 22.06.2020 | Handling Editor: Dr. Sanjay K. Singh

Download Article (PDF)

Download Supplementary information

 

The genera of Coelomycetes, including genera of lichen forming, sexual morphs and synasexual morphs with coelomycetous morphs (genera A–C)

Nalin N. Wijayawardene1, Dong-Qin Dai1, *, Ye Tian2, *, Li-Zhou Tang1, 3, Patricia Oliveira Fiuza4, Flavia Rodrigues Barbosa5, Taimy Cantillo-Perez6, Kunhiraman C. Rajeshkumar7

1Center for Yunnan Plateau Biological Resources Protection and Utilization, College of Biological Resource and Food Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing City, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Innovation Startup College, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, People’s Republic of China; 4Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Programa de Pós-graduação em Sistemática e Evolução, Centro de Biociências, Campus Universitário, Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 3000, Lagoa Nova, Natal-RN, 59078-970, Brazil; 5Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Instituto de Ciências Naturais, Humanas e Sociais, Avenida Alexandre Ferronato, 1200, Setor Industrial, Sinop, MT, 78557-267, Brazil; 6Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Programa de Pós Graduação em Modelagem das Ciências da Terra e Meio Ambiente, Av. Transnordestina, s/n – Bairro: Novo Horizonte, Feira de Santana BA, 44036-900, Brazil; 7National Fungal Culture Collection of India (NFCCI), Biodiversity and Palaeobiology (Fungi) Group, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra 411 004, India; *Corresponding authors, e-mail:Dong-Qin Dai ([email protected]), Ye Tian ([email protected])

Identification, classification and nomenclature of asexual fungi (including coelomycetes) have been changing rapidly. However, nomenclatural changes of coelomycetous fungi have not been thoroughly discussed since Sutton (1977). Hence, it is essential to compile all scattered data and revisit the list of generic names. In this study, we compiled all published generic names of coelomycetous taxa including invalid and illegitimate names. Further, sexual genera which have coelomycetous asexual morphs are also provided. The present paper is a part of a series of papers on coelomycetous genera.

Wijayawardene NN, Dai DQ, Tang L-Z, Fiuza PO, Barbosa FR, Cantillo-Perez T, Rajeshkumar KC (2020) The genera of Coelomycetes; including genera of lichen forming, sexual morphs and synasexual morphs with coelomycetous morphs (A–C). MycoAsia 2020/03.   

Received: 10.06.2019 | Accepted: 19.06.2020 | Published: 19.06.2020 | Handling Editor: Dr. Sanjay K. Singh

Download Article (PDF)

 

 

 

 

Diatrype: New records from Andaman Islands and a checklist from India

M. Niranjan#, Vemuri Venkateswara Sarma*

Department of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, Puducherry – 605014, India; #Present address: Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, University Road, Papum Pare, Arunachal Pradesh – 791112, India; *Corresponding author, email: [email protected]

Fungal genus Diatrype is the type of the family Diatrypaceae, Xylariales, Sordariomycetes. During our fungal exploration in Andaman Islands, India (2015–2018), we encountered six fungi belonging to the genus Diatrype. The literature survey suggested that these fungi,viz. D. buteae M.S. Patil & S.D. Patil, D. ilicina Lar. N. Vassiljeva & S.L. Stephenson, D. stigma (Hoffm.) Fr, D. stigmaoides Kauffman, D. subundulata Lar. N. Vassiljeva & H.X. Maand D. syzygii Narendra & V.G. Rao are new records from Andaman Islands, India. The fungal species are reported and illustrated in this paper with morphological descriptions.

Niranjan M, Sarma VV (2020) Diatrype: New records from Andaman Islands and a checklist from India. MycoAsia 2020/02. 

Received: 30.01.2020 | Accepted: 30.05.2020 | Published: 31.05.2020 | Handling Editor: Dr. B. Devadatha

Download Article (PDF)

New record of rust disease caused by Puccinia oxalidis on Oxalis latifolia from India

Rajnish Kumar Verma1, Ajay Kumar Gautam2, *, Ankit Singh3, Shubhi Avasthi4, Indu Bhushan Prasher5, Mohan Chandra Nautiyal3, Harpreet Singh1

1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Swami Vivekanand Group of Institutes, Ramnagar, Banur, Punjab -140506, India; 2School of Agriculture, Abhilashi University, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, 175028, India; 3High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal 246174, India; 4School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, Madhya Pradesh, India; 5Department of Botany, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014, India; *Corresponding author, email: [email protected]

A severe rust infection was observed on the plantations of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae),commonly known as procumbent yellow sorrel, in Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh, and on O. latifolia, known as garden pink-sorrel, in Uttarakhand in northern India. Detailed morphological examination of the diseased leaf samples was conducted, which confirmed the identity of the pathogen as Puccinia oxalidis. Rust symptoms on the host plants, along with taxonomic account of the phytopathogen are detailed in this paper. A taxonomic key of Puccinia species reported from Oxalis species is provided to facilitate its identity. In addition to understand its global host range, a worldwide host distribution of P. oxalidis is provided. The present study is the first detailed taxonomic account of P. oxalidis on Oxalis corniculata from Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh in northern India. To the best of our knowledge, this is a new record of P. oxalidis from O. latifolia from India.

Verma RK, Gautam AK, Singh A, Avasthi S, Prasher IB, Nautiyal MC, Singh H (2020) New record of rust disease caused by Puccinia oxalidis on Oxalis latifolia from India. MycoAsia 2020/01. 

Received: 28.06.2019 | Accepted: 14.03.2020 | Published: 14.03.2020 | Handling Editor: Dr. Rajeshkumar K. C.

Download Article (PDF)