Wednesday, February 28, 2024

2023

Histoplasmosis in Sri Lanka – barely recognized, yet present

Liyanage Shamithra M. Sigera1, *, Primali I. Jayasekera2, David W. Denning1

Affiliations
1Manchester Fungal Infection Group, Core Technology Facility, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK, 2Department of Mycology, Medical Research Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

*Corresponding author, email: [email protected]

Abstract
Histoplasmosis has been reported in Sri Lanka for decades; however, clinical recognition and diagnosis of the disease are rare. We conducted a comprehensive search of English-language medical literature from 1969 to February 2022. Our analysis found one population survey of histoplasmin skin sensitivity testing in 1969 (5.7% positive incidence) and ten cases of histoplasmosis across Sri Lanka. The highest number of cases were reported from the Central province, where the positive histoplasmin tests were observed previously. None of the patients were positive for HIV, and both diabetes and betel chewing seem linked with oral histoplasmosis. Out of the reported cases, 50% were diagnosed with disseminated histoplasmosis; asymptomatic, acute pulmonary, and chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis were not observed. The clinical presentation varied from oral lesions (the most common presentation), skin lesions, and fever of unknown origin to adrenal crisis. Fungal culture and histopathology were used for diagnosis, with no use of antigen and antibody testing. Amphotericin B and itraconazole were used as treatment options. The rising at-risk population mandates enhancing laboratory diagnostic facilities and increasing the awareness of medical professionals in Sri Lanka on histoplasmosis.

Citation
Sigera LSM, Jayasekera PI, Denning DW (2023) Histoplasmosis in Sri Lanka – barely recognized, yet present. MycoAsia 2023/01. https://doi.org/10.59265/mycoasia.2023-01

Submission History
Received: 07.12.2022
Accepted: 22.02.2023
Published: 21.06.2023

Editorial Team
Handling Editor: Dr. Prasanna Honnavar
Reviewers: Dr. Dipti Sharma, Dr. Khem Raj



A new record of Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers.) Morgan (Boletales, Basidiomycota) from Afghanistan

Atiqullah Sultani Ahmadzai1, Hamid Ejtehadi1, *, Mohammad Farzam2, Maral Bashirzadeh2

Affiliations
1Quantitative Plant Ecology and Biodiversity Research Lab., Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

*Corresponding author, email[email protected]

Abstract
The mycorrhizal fungus, Astraeus hygrometricus, which was found thriving beneath Quercus baloot and Cedrus deodara trees is being documented in Afghanistan for the first time. Despite previous reports confirming the presence of this fungus in other parts of Asia, Europe and America, there is no prior documentation of its presence in Afghanistan. This report includes a protologue of the specimens collected from Afghanistan, showcasing both macro- and micro-morphological characteristics. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images are provided for a detailed view of the basidiospores.

Citation
Sultani Ahmadzai A, Ejtehadi H, Farzam M, Bashirzadeh M (2023) A new record of Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers.) Morgan (Boletales, Basidiomycota) from Afghanistan. MycoAsia 2023/02. https://doi.org/10.59265/ mycoasia.2023-02.

Submission History
Received: 24.03.2023
Accepted: 21.06.2023
Published: 02.07.2023

Editorial Team
Handling Editor: Prof. Samantha C. Karunarathna
Reviewers: Prof. Changlin Zhao, Dr. Arun Kumar Dutta