Category: Research Article

The sexual morph of Induratia coffeana, a new record from Thailand

Qi-Rui Li1,2,3, *, Ji-Chuan Kang2

1The Department of Pharmacognosy (The State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, The High Efficacy Application of Natural Medicinal Resources Engineering Center of Guizhou Province, The Key Laboratory of Optimal Utilization of Natural Medicine Resources), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, University Town, Guian New District, Guizhou 550025, People’s Republic of China. 2The Engineering and Research Center for Southwest Bio-Pharmaceutical Resources of National Education Ministry of China, Guizhou University, Guizhou 550025, People’s Republic of China. 3Department of Pharmacology of Materia Medical (The High Educational Key Laboratory of Guizhou Province for Natural Medicinal Pharmacology and Drug Ability, The Union Key Laboratory of Guiyang City-Guizhou Medical University), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, University Town, Guian New District, Guizhou 550025, People’s Republic of China. *Correspondence author, email: lqrnd2008@163.com

An induratialike fungus was collected in Thailand from a deadwood piece of an unidentified plant. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, LSU, rpb2, and β-tubulin sequence data and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Induratia coffeana. Induratia coffeana differs from I. ziziphi, I. thailandica and I. apiospora by its 2celled ascospores with equal divisions. Full description, illustrations, and a phylogenetic tree to show the placement of I. coffeana are provided. Induratia coffeana is reported herein as a new record for Thailand based on its sexual morph.

Li Q-R, Kang J-C (2022) The sexual morph of Induratia coffeana, a new record from Thailand. MycoAsia 2022/09.

Received: 22.06.2022 | Accepted: 29.08.2022 | Published: 19.10.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Nalin N. Wijayawardene | Reviewers: Dr. Milan C. Samarakoon, Dr. Chada Norphanphoun

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Two new species and a new record of Astrocystis from Southwestern China

Qi-Rui Li1, 2, You-Peng Wu1, Yin-Hui Pi1, Si-Han Long1, Nalin N. Wijaywardene1, 3, 4, Nakarin Suwannarach5, Li-LiLiu6, *

1State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, P. R. China. 2The High Efficacy Application of Natural Medicinal Resources Engineering Center of Guizhou Province (The Key Laboratory of Optimal Utilization of Natural Medicine Resources), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, University Town, Guian New District, Guizhou, P. R. China. 3Center for Yunnan Plateau Biological Resources Protection and Utilization, College of Biological Resource and Food Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011, P. R. China. 4Section of Genetics, Institute for Research and Development in Health and Social Care, No: 393/3, Lily Avenue, Off Robert Gunawardena Mawatha, Battaramulla 10120, Sri Lanka. 5Research Center of Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. 6Immune Cells and Antibody Engineering Research Center of Guizhou Province/ Key Laboratory of Biology and Medical Engineering, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, P. R. China. *Correspondence: lililiu550025@163.com

In this study, three species of Astrocystis were collected from bamboo culms in Guizhou and Yunnan Provinces in China. Morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses (based on ITS, rpb2, β-tubulin and α-actin gene regions) supported the proposal of two new species viz., Astrocystis pseudomirabilis sp. nov. and A. tessellati sp. nov. and a new record of A. sublimbata from China. Astrocystis pseudomirabilis can be distinguished from A. mirabilis by its larger stromata (0.64–0.83 × 0.38–0.52 mm vs. 0.4–0.6 × 0.2–0.5 mm) and larger ascospores (11–14 × 6–8 μm vs. 10–12 × 4.5–6 μm). Astrocystis tessellati differs from A. multiloculata by its smaller ascospores (16.2–19.2 × 7.2–9 μm vs. 19–25 × 7–11 μm).Astrocystis pseudomirabilis and A. tessellati form two distinct clades within Astrocystis.

Li Q-R, Wu Y-P, Pi Y-H, Long S-H, Wijayawardene NN, Suwannarach N, Liu L-L(2022) Two new species and a new record of Astrocystis from Southwestern China. MycoAsia 2022/08. 

Received: 25.08.2022 | Accepted: 28.08.2022 | Published: 28.09.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy | Reviewers: Dr. Gunjan Sharma, Dr. K. C. Rajeshkumar

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First successful cultivation and nutritional composition of Macrocybe gigantea in Sri Lanka

Mahesh C.A. Galappaththi1, Yuan Lu2, Samantha C. Karunarathna3, Nirosha Wijewardena4, Anuruddha Karunarathna5, Mahesh Gamage4, *, Aseni Navoda Ediriweera6, *

1Postgraduate Institute of Science (PGIS), University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. 2Guiyang Healthcare Vocational University, Guiyang 550081, Guizhou, P.R. China. 3Center for Yunnan Plateau Biological Resources Protection and Utilization, College of Biological Resource and Food Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011, P.R. China. 4Teclink International (Pvt) Ltd, 278/16, Old Kottawa Road, Embuldeniya, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka. 5Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. 6Department of Biosystems Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka. *Correspondence: chandikamahesh@gmail.com; aseniediriweera@gmail.com

The wild edible mushroom Macrocybe gigantea is widely consumed as one of the prime seasonal delicacies in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In this study, M. gigantea was identified through morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Spawn production and cultivation parameters of M. gigantea were investigated for the first time in Sri Lanka. The mycelial growth was observed in potato dextrose agar medium, while paddy grains were used for spawn production. A mixture containing rubber sawdust (100 kg), rice bran (18 kg), CaCO3 (2.5 kg), gypsum (1 kg), and MgSO4 (0.35 kg) was tested as a substrate for colonization bags. In addition, gene sequence-data, proximate analysis, energy value, and mineral elements of cultivated M. gigantea were studied. Mycelia in mushroom growth bags were cultivated under the temperature range of 27–30 ℃ and relative humidity of 60 %. Three weeks after inoculation, the primordia appeared and it took four additional days until the occurrence of young fruit bodies. A second flush was harvested 3 weeks after the first. Proximate analysis, energy value and mineral element analysis were recorded as 85.3 % moisture, 0.8 % ash, 1.6 % fat, 2.3 % protein, 10.0 % carbohydrate, 0.28 % potassium (K), 0.00064 % iron (Fe), 0.0024 % sodium (Na), and energy 63.6 kcal/100g. This study provides valuable information concerning the cultivation and nutritional composition of M. gigantea in Sri Lanka.

Galappaththi MCA, Lu Y, Karunarathna SC, Wijewardena N, Karunarathna A, Gamage M, Ediriweera AN(2022) First successful cultivation and nutritional composition of Macrocybe gigantea in Sri Lanka. MycoAsia 2022/07.

Received: 21.03.2022 | Accepted: 26.07.2022 | Published: 01.08.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Nalin Wijayawardene | Reviewers: Dr. Armin Mešić, Dr. Nakarin Suwannarach

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Fruit brown rot caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Selenicereus monacanthus in the Philippines

Mark Angelo Balendres1, *, John Darby Taguiam1, Edzel Evallo1, Jaypee Estigoy2, Cris Cortaga1

1Institute of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture and Food Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines 4031. 2Agricultural Science and Technology School, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines 3120. *Correspondence: mobalendres@up.edu.ph

Multiple fungal pathogens infect economically important fruits, thereby affecting their quality and marketability. Previous research showed that some fungal pathogens that can infect the stems might infect the fruit but show a different symptom. To determine the causal pathogen of a fruit disease of Selenicereus monacanthus(Dragon fruit), we used a combination of fungal pathology characterization and molecular biology techniques. This paper presents the pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum MBDF36C to S. monacanthus resulting in brown rot and canker on fruits and stem, respectively. The paper also demonstrates the in vitro inhibition of N. dimidiatum MBDF36C by chemicals, including a bio-fungicide containing Bacillus subtilis. At seven days post-inoculation, we observed severe browning on N. dimidiatum MBDF36C-inoculated fruits but not on stems. Stems exhibited canker-like symptoms. The same funguswas re-isolated from both inoculated diseased fruits and stems, thereby confirming Koch’s postulates. The pathogen was identified as N. dimidiatum based on its morphology, cultural characteristics, and sequences of the partial ß-tubulin gene. In vitro growth of N. dimidiatum MBDF36C was also completely inhibited by a bio-fungicide containing B. subtilis, isoprothiolane, and mancozeb. This study is the first report of N. dimidiatumcausing brown fruit rot of dragon fruit in the Philippines. This information could impact the current postharvest fruit handling operations and future studies on dragon fruit disease management.

Balendres MA, Taguiam JD, Evallo E, Estigoy J, Cortaga C(2022) Fruit brown rot caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Selenicereus monacanthus in the Philippines. MycoAsia 2022/06.

Received: 17.02.2022 | Accepted: 30.06.2022 | Published: 15.07.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy |  Reviewers: Dr. Tamie C. Solpot, Dr. Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

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Do fungal spore morphological traits correlate with allergenicity?

Raphael R. Sanvictores1, Michelle Charina C. Gomez1, Stephen Louie R. Briones1, Wan Teng M. Chang1, Adrianne Marie A. Morales1, Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac1, Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz1, 2, *

1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, España Blvd. 1015 Manila, Philippines. 2Fungal Biodiversity, Ecogenomics and Systematics (FBeS) Group, Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, España Blvd. 1015 Manila, Philippines. *Correspondence: tedelacruz@ust.edu.ph

Fungal spores, like pollen, are identified as sources of allergens, yet fungal spore morphology, unlike pollen morphology, has not been correlated with allergenicity. In this study, we listed allergenic fungi reported from published literature and gathered information about their spore morphologies including the species’ lifestyle, the ability to produce mycotoxins, and the types of hypersensitivity reactions they induced. We tested the association of these spore traits with the hypersensitivity reaction through correspondence analysis with Chi-square as the measure of distance. Our research listed a total of 158 species of allergenic fungi belonging to 82 genera and 30 taxonomic orders. Most of the species (n = 122) elicited a Type I hypersensitivity reaction while 33 species had more than one hypersensitivity type (Types I-III-IV). The most common allergenic fungi belong to the genus Alternaria (41 species). Two fungal taxa commonly found in spoiled food, Penicillium (9 species) and Aspergillus (8 species), were also listed as allergenic. We did not find any strong correlation between allergenic reaction with the following spore traits: shape, texture, color, size, appendages, and with the type of spores, presence of mycotoxins, and the species lifestyle. However, spore length and width were positively associated with hypersensitivity reaction. Allergenic fungi with short and/or narrow spores can likely cause multiple types of hypersensitivity reactions while fungi with large and/or wide spores can induce either Type I or Type III hypersensitivity reaction. Our research study provides interesting insights into the role of fungal spore morphologies in human allergenicity.

Sanvictores RR, Gomez MCC, Briones SLR, Chang WTM, Morales AMA, Dagamac NHA, dela Cruz TEE (2022) Do fungal spore morphological traits correlate with allergenicity? MycoAsia 2022/05.

Received: 05.04.2022 | Accepted: 20.05.2022 | Published 20.05.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy |  Reviewers: Dr. Prasanna Honnavar, Dr. Krystle Angelique Santiago

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Recent surge of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients: clinicians’ perspective from systems genomics

Sudhir Mehta1, *, Krishna Mohan Medicherla2, 4, Ayyagari Subramanyam4, PB Kavi Kishor3, 4, Prashanth Suravajhala2, 4, 5, *

1Department of General Medicine, SMS Medical College and Hospitals, Jaipur 302004, Rajasthan, India. 2Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Birla Institute of Scientific Research, Jaipur 302001, Rajasthan, India. 3Department of Biotechnology, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research, Vadlamudi, Guntur 522213, Andhra Pradesh, India. 4Bioclues.org, India. 5Amrita School of Biotechnology, Amrita Vishwavidyapeetham, Clappana PO, Kerala. 690525, India. *Correspondence: prash@bioclues.org, sudhirm02@gmail.com

Mucormycosis has been largely associated with COVID-19 patients. With the growing number of cases, there is an immediate need to understand the treatment regimen for COVID-19 which could predispose to mucormycosis infection. The authors have highlighted the points from clinicians’ perspective.

Mehta S, Medicherla KM, Subramanyam A, Kishor PBK, Suravajhala P(2022) Recent surge of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients: clinicians’ perspective from systems genomics. MycoAsia 2022/04.

Received: 29.03.2022 | Accepted: 06.05.2022 | Published: 06.05.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy | Reviewers: Dr. Primali Jayasekera, Dr. Prasanna Honnavara

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The first updated checklist of novel fungi in Pakistan (1947–2021)

Mubashar Raza1, 2, *, Lei Cai1, Muhammad Waseem Abbasi3, Rahila Hafeez4, 5, Marium Tariq6, Paul M. Kirk7, Muzammil Hussain1, 2, Nalin N. Wijayawardene8, 9

1State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P.R. China. 2, †Department of Plant Pathology, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan. 3Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan. 4State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agricultural and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, P.R. China. 5Deparment of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan. 6M.A.H. Qadri Biological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan. 7Biodiversity Informatics & Spatial Analysis, Royal Botanic Garden Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK. 8Center for Yunnan Plateau Biological Resources Protection and Utilization, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011, Yunnan Province, P.R. China. 9Section of Genetics, Institute for Research and Development in Health and Social Care, No: 393/3, Lily Avenue, Off Robert Gunawardane Mawatha, Battaramulla 10120, Sri Lanka. * Correspondence: mubasharraza73@yahoo.com, Alma mater

The role of fungi in both natural and managed ecosystem processes is unequivocal with mycotaxa being key drivers of soil, plant and animal health. Recent advances in DNA-based species identification and classification have enforced mycologists to update national checklists for proper exploitation of fungal traits and functions. However, in some countries like Pakistan, a comprehensive checklist of fungal diversity, distribution, and their host range is still lacking. Herein, we summarize novel fungal species (including both macro- and micro-fungi) for the first time from distinct geographical locations of Pakistan. A total of 742 novel fungal species in 7 phyla have been reported in Pakistan since 1947, including 136 ambiguous species (as a result of cryptic species, taxonomy revisions, and lack of DNA sequence data) and 113 species with DNA sequence data. The compilation of the fungal name list provides an overview of the currently known fungal taxa in Pakistan and enables the assessment of the knowledge gap on the fungal biodiversity in comparison to the rest of the world. The current checklist will serve as a foundation for new fungi names to be added in the future and can be used as a reference by mycologists to retrieve fungal species from existing culture banks in Pakistan mentioned on the website, www.fungiofpakistan.com, to exploit their functional traits in the food industry, health sectors and for sustainable agriculture in Pakistan.

Raza M, Cai L, Abbasi MW, Hafeez R, Tariq M, Kirk PM, Hussain M, Wijayawardene NN (2022) The first updated checklist of novel fungi in Pakistan (1947–2021). MycoAsia 2022/03.

Received: 26.01.2022 | Accepted: 15.03.2022 | Published: 16.03.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Samina Sarwar | Reviewers: Dr. Rajesh Jeewon, Dr. Samantha C. Karunarathna, Anonymous reviewer

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Resupinatus poriaeformis (Agaricomycetes), a new record from India

Suhaib Firdous Yatoo1, Shoeib Mujeeb Sheikh2, *

1Mushroom Cultivation Centre, Department of Botany, Government Degree College, Sopore, Baramulla, Jammu & Kashmir 193201, India, 2Department of Botany, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Amravati Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra 440033, India, *Corresponding author, email: sheikhshoeib571@gmail.com

The Himalayas are remarkably diverse and unique in terms of flora and fauna. Most of the Himalayan regions of India are either unexplored or poorly explored. Resupinatus poriaeformis is reported here as a new record from India. A morphological description is presented along with the taxonomic and ecological notes.

Yatoo SF, Sheikh SM(2022) Resupinatus poriaeformis (Agaricomycetes), a new record from India. MycoAsia 2022/02. 

Received: 24.09.2021 | Accepted: 31.01.2022 | Published: 31.01.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy | Reviewers: Dr. Samantha C. Karunarathna, Dr. Md. Iqbal Hosen

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Resolving the phylogenetic placement of Gangliostilbe in the family Xenospadicoidaceae (Xenospadicoidales)

Sneha Lad1, Kunhiraman C. Rajeshkumar1, *, Paraparath O. Sruthi1, Nikhil Ashtekar1, Abdulsalim P. Ansil1, Rajnish K. Verma2, Nalin N. Wijayawardene3

1National Fungal Culture Collection of India (NFCCI), Biodiversity and Palaeobiology (Fungi) Group, MACS Agharkar Research Institute, G. G. Agarkar Road, Pune, 411 004, Maharashtra, India, 2Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141 004, Punjab, India, 3Center for Yunnan Plateau Biological Resources Protection and Utilization, College of Biological Resource and Food Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan, 655011, P. R. China, Corresponding author, email: rajeshfungi@gmail.com

This study resolves the phylogenetic position of an anamorphic synnematous genus, Gangliostilbe,(typified by G. indica) collected from the Northern Western Ghats of India. Gangliostilbe can be distinguished based on its erect synnemata, simple, dark-coloured, well-defined stalk, a subglobose to clavate head, and solitary, acrogenous, brown, phragmoconidia having three or more septa that secede through gangliar conidiogenesis. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS and LSU sequence data supported the placement of Gangliostilbe in Xenospadicoidaceae (Xenospadicoidales). Gangliostilbe is the only genus in Xenospadicoidaceae having synnematous conidiomata and gangliar conidiogenesis.

Lad S, Rajeshkumar KC, Sruthi OP, AshtekarN, Ansil PA, VermaRK, Wijayawardene NN(2022) Resolving the phylogenetic placement of Gangliostilbe in the family Xenospadicoidaceae (Xenospadicoidales). MycoAsia 2022/01. 

Received: 16.12.2021 | Accepted: 30.01.2022 | Published: 30.01.2022 | Handling Editor: Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy | Reviewers: Dr. Rajesh Jeewon, Dr. Mubashar Raza, Dr. Gunjan Sharma

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Two fungal species associated with canker disease of Jujube tree in China

Meng Pan, Chengming Tian and Xinlei Fan*

The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, P. R. China, *Correspondence author, email: xinleifan@bjfu.edu.cn

Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) is a common fruit tree used in landscaping, medicine and timber. However, Jujube trees are threatened by various pathogens in the process of planting and cultivation. In this study, destructive canker diseases of Z. jujuba were investigated in Beijing, China. Based on morphological comparison and DNA sequence analysis, the causal organisms of these diseases were identified as Dothiorella acericola and Nothophoma spiraeae. This is the first report of D. acericola and  N. spiraeae on Z. jujuba. This study improves our understanding of fungal species causing canker or dieback disease on this economically important tree and provides insights on selecting the effective disease management strategies for Z. jujuba in China.

Pan M, Tian C, Fan XL (2021) Two fungal species associated with canker disease of Jujube tree in China. MycoAsia 2021/03. 

Received: 28.01.2021 | Accepted: 09.10.2021 | Published: 09.10.2021 | Handling Editor: Dr. Ajay Kumar Gautam | Reviewers: Dr. Rashmi Dubey, Dr. R. K. Verma, Dr. Belle Damodara Shenoy

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